Indian paintings provide an aesthetic continuum that extends from the early civilization
to the present day. This form of art in India is vivid and lively, refined and sophisticated
and bold and vigorous at the same time. From being essentially religious in purpose
in the beginning, Indian paintings have evolved over the years to become a fusion
of various traditions which influenced them.
During the 4th century AD. in a remote valley in Western India, work began on the
Ajanta caves to create a complex of Buddhist monasteries and prayer halls. .
The sculptor-monks who lived here during the months of rain also took up a novel
exercise of painting large tempera murals on the walls of the caves. The walls and
ceilings were painted with frescoes in vibrant mineral colours. These paintings
turned out to be of a quality which has never been surpassed
The themes of these wall-paintings range from Buddhist legends to decorative patterns
of flowers and animals. They seek to depict permanent human values and principles
and are also records of the social texture of the times. The Golden Age of India
under the Mauryan Empire was marked by luxurious living and splendour. The Ajanta
murals were painted during this time of prosperity.
These murals also formed the basis of an entire aesthetic tradition which later
spread to other countries in Asia. Versatility of line and form and role of color
and composition are the endearing features of this art form. These paintings create
a feeling of gaiety, wonder and resonance in the beholder. The viewer is transported
into another state of consciousness where sound and light and colour and palpable
form are fused into one separate reality.
The essence of the Indian miniaturists' visual expression lay in the idea of symbolism.
In the language of symbols they recorded their communion with nature, rich in wonder,
awe and delight. Their minds excelled in expressing what lay beyond the primary
function of lines and pigments.'The master painter disposes', Buddha once remarked
while alluding to the art of metaphysical teaching, 'his colours for the sake of
a picture that can not be seen in the colours themselves.'
Painters delighted in unfolding the other dimension of the object; the basic shift
in emphasis was from the multiplicity of sense experiences to unifying ideas, from
the mutable aspect to an ever-present situation. Subjects derived from myths served
as the base for such a transformation of nature into art, to reveal aspects of existence,
human and supernatural or divine.
Indian miniature painting is a 'visual chamber music' to be savoured slowly, intently
and privately. 'Miniature'
generally refers to a painting or illumination, small in size meticulous in detail
and delicate in brushwork. The art of palm-leaf illuminations were traditionally
labelled as patra-lekhana in medieval Indian canons. But later a generalised term
pata chitra was conviniently used to define other kinds of painting than wall painting.
It indeed included painted scrolls and panels.
Yet these paintings are not detached visions of artistic expression but provide
the basis of Indian music and art forms. Most of these masterly works are visual
creations of emotional and perceptive concepts that depict the ragas or musical
modes of Indian classical music. Miniature painters employed at various medieval
courts, discovered the potential of limitless self-expression in their depiction
and today there are 130 known sets of such miniatures.
These pictorially articulate visions of art first made their appearance in the Indian
cultural scene in the 5th century. The artist drew his inspiration from a musical
text called Narada Shiksha. But while the text dates back to the early beginnings
of art, its artistic depiction did not gain credence till about a hundred years
later, when artists and painters took cognizance of the relationship that governs
sound and sentiment. This art form soon generated into a dynamic movement, fanned
by patronage and fulfilled itself into figurative and pastoral scenes, making music
the subject matter of art, through colour and mood.
These beautiful paintings also depict the court life of the time when they were
created. The raiment of the figures, the architecture of the land, the features
of the faces come into sharp focus under the painter's lyrical eye. The thematic
stance has given the works a certain uniformity, a decided formalism and a feel
of the glory and grandeur of the times. The gossamer-veiled women with pinched noses,
doe-eyes and graceful stances are not just an art form, but become a basis for appreciating
the charm of a bygone era.
Yet within this uniform diffusion of compositional selection, there are distinct
differences. These are due to the different schools of art. The Persian influence
upon the Indian folk, or the workmanship of one court artist or another, have given
this trove of paintings a varied content. The schools of Mewar or Udaipur or Jaipur
in Rajasthan have incorporated their desert landscape and architecture. The hill
kingdoms of Kumaon and Kangra are marked by fine drawing, while the plateau regions
of Malwa and Bundelkhand specialize in attractive brush work. The crowning glory
of the miniature series is the Provincial Mughal works, attributed to the reign
of emperors Akbar and Jehangir. These depict the rulers themselves as well as historical
personages and musicians. The Tanjore paintings of the South depict Krishna and
Shiva and reflect the mythical source of music.
The somewhat lesser-known traditions of Indian painting are the so-called "folk"paintings
dating back to a period that may be referred to as "timeless". These are living
traditions, intrinsically linked with the regional historico-cultural settings from
which they arise.